RabbitMQ tutorial - "Hello World!" SUPPRESS-RHS

Introduction

“Hello World”

(using the amqp.node client)

In this part of the tutorial we’ll write two small programs in Javascript; a producer that sends a single message, and a consumer that receives messages and prints them out. We’ll gloss over some of the detail in the amqp.node API, concentrating on this very simple thing just to get started. It’s a “Hello World” of messaging.

In the diagram below, “P” is our producer and “C” is our consumer. The box in the middle is a queue - a message buffer that RabbitMQ keeps on behalf of the consumer.

(P) -> [|||] -> ©“ height="60” />
</div>

<blockquote>
<h4 id=The amqp.node client library

RabbitMQ speaks multiple protocols. This tutorial uses AMQP 0-9-1, which is an open, general-purpose protocol for messaging. There are a number of clients for RabbitMQ in many different languages. We’ll use the amqp.node client in this tutorial.

First, install amqp.node using npm:

npm install amqplib

Now we have amqp.node installed, we can write some code.

Sending

(P) -> [|||]“ height="100” />
</div>

<p>We’ll call our message publisher (sender) <code>send.js</code> and our message consumer (receiver)
<code>receive.js</code>.  The publisher will connect to RabbitMQ, send a single message,
then exit.</p>

<p>In
<a href=send.js, we need to require the library first:

#!/usr/bin/env node

var amqp = require('amqplib/callback_api');

then connect to RabbitMQ server

amqp.connect('amqp://localhost', function(error0, connection) {});

Next we create a channel, which is where most of the API for getting things done resides:

amqp.connect('amqp://localhost', function(error0, connection) {
  if (error0) {
    throw error0;
  }
  connection.createChannel(function(error1, channel) {});
});

To send, we must declare a queue for us to send to; then we can publish a message to the queue:

amqp.connect('amqp://localhost', function(error0, connection) {
  if (error0) {
    throw error0;
  }
  connection.createChannel(function(error1, channel) {
    if (error1) {
      throw error1;
    }
    var queue = 'hello';
    var msg = 'Hello world';

    channel.assertQueue(queue, {
      durable: false
    });

    channel.sendToQueue(queue, Buffer.from(msg));
    console.log(" [x] Sent %s", msg);
  });
});

Declaring a queue is idempotent - it will only be created if it doesn’t exist already. The message content is a byte array, so you can encode whatever you like there.

Lastly, we close the connection and exit:

setTimeout(function() {
  connection.close();
  process.exit(0)
  }, 500);

Here’s the whole send.js script.

Sending doesn’t work!

If this is your first time using RabbitMQ and you don’t see the “Sent” message then you may be left scratching your head wondering what could be wrong. Maybe the broker was started without enough free disk space (by default it needs at least 200 MB free) and is therefore refusing to accept messages. Check the broker logfile to confirm and reduce the limit if necessary. The configuration file documentation will show you how to set disk_free_limit.

Receiving

That’s it for our publisher. Our consumer listens for messages from RabbitMQ, so unlike the publisher which publishes a single message, we’ll keep the consumer running to listen for messages and print them out.

[|||] -> ©“ height="100” />
</div>

<p>The code (in <a href=receive.js) has the same require as send:

#!/usr/bin/env node

var amqp = require('amqplib/callback_api');

Setting up is the same as the publisher; we open a connection and a channel, and declare the queue from which we’re going to consume. Note this matches up with the queue that sendToQueue publishes to.

amqp.connect('amqp://localhost', function(error0, connection) {
  if (error0) {
    throw error0;
  }
  connection.createChannel(function(error1, channel) {
    if (error1) {
      throw error1;
    }
    var queue = 'hello';

    channel.assertQueue(queue, {
      durable: false
    });
  });
});

Note that we declare the queue here, as well. Because we might start the consumer before the publisher, we want to make sure the queue exists before we try to consume messages from it.

We’re about to tell the server to deliver us the messages from the queue. Since it will push us messages asynchronously, we provide a callback that will be executed when RabbitMQ pushes messages to our consumer. This is what Channel.consume does.

console.log(" [*] Waiting for messages in %s. To exit press CTRL+C", queue);
channel.consume(queue, function(msg) {
  console.log(" [x] Received %s", msg.content.toString());
}, {
    noAck: true
  });

Here’s the whole receive.js script.

Putting it all together

Now we can run both scripts. In a terminal, from the rabbitmq-tutorials/javascript-nodejs/src/ folder, run the publisher:

./send.js

then, run the consumer:

./receive.js

The consumer will print the message it gets from the publisher via RabbitMQ. The consumer will keep running, waiting for messages (Use Ctrl-C to stop it), so try running the publisher from another terminal.

Listing queues

You may wish to see what queues RabbitMQ has and how many messages are in them. You can do it (as a privileged user) using the rabbitmqctl tool:

sudo rabbitmqctl list_queues

On Windows, omit the sudo:

rabbitmqctl.bat list_queues

Time to move on to part 2 and build a simple work queue.