Updating MySQL Instances

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This topic describes how to scale or change configurations on a VMware Tanzu™ SQL with MySQL for Kubernetes instance.

Prerequisites

Before you update the MySQL instance, you must have:

  • Access and permissions to the MySQL instance.

  • The Kubernetes Command Line Interface (kubectl) installed: For more information, see the Kubernetes documentation.

Scale storageSize

For storage classes that support storageSize, you can expand the storageSize but not reduce it.

To scale storageSize:

  1. Target the namespace where you want to scale storageSize:

    kubectl config set-context --current --namespace=DEVELOPMENT-NAMESPACE
    

    Where DEVELOPMENT-NAMESPACE is the namespace in which you want to scale storageSize.

    For example:

    $ kubectl config set-context --current --namespace=my-namespace
    
  2. Look up the storage class associated with the MySQL Pod’s Persistent Volume Claim (PVC):

    kubectl get pvc mysql-data-INSTANCE-NAME-N -o jsonpath={.spec.storageClassName}
    

    Where:

    • INSTANCE-NAME is the value that you configured for metadata.name for your MySQL resource.
    • N is the index of the Pod in the MySQL instance.

    For example:

    $ kubectl get pvc mysql-data-mysql-sample-0 -o jsonpath={.spec.storageClassName}
      standard
    
  3. Check if the storage class allows volume expansion. Look for the ALLOWVOLUMEEXPANSION column by running:

    kubectl get storageclass CLASS-RETURNED
    

    Where CLASS-RETURNED is the storageclass associated with the MySQL Pod’s PVC from the previous step.

    For example:

    $ kubectl get storageclass standard
    NAME                 PROVISIONER            RECLAIMPOLICY   VOLUMEBINDINGMODE    ALLOWVOLUMEEXPANSION   AGE
    standard (default)   kubernetes.io/gce-pd   Delete          Immediate            true                   91s
    
  4. If the output does not show the ALLOWVOLUMEEXPANSION column, run:

    kubectl get storageclasses.storage.k8s.io standard \
    -o custom-columns='NAME:.metadata.name,ALLOWVOLUMEEXPANSION:.allowVolumeExpansion'

  5. If you are using Kubernetes v1.11 and volume expansion is supported, change the allowVolumeExpansion field to true in StorageClass objects. Only PVCs created from a StorageClass with allowVolumeExpansion set to true are allowed to perform volume expansion. For more information, see the Kubernetes documentation.

  6. Edit the PVC spec.resources.requests.storage field to increase the volume size by running:

    kubectl patch pvc mysql-data-INSTANCE-NAME-N -p \
    '{"spec": {"resources": {"requests": {"storage": "NEW-REQUESTED-SIZE"}}}}'
    

    Where:

    • INSTANCE-NAME is the value that you configured for metadata.name for your MySQL resource.
    • N is the index of the Pod in the MySQL instance.
    • NEW-REQUESTED-SIZE is the increased volume size.

    For example:

    $ kubectl patch pvc mysql-data-mysql-sample-0 -p '{"spec": {"resources": {"requests": {"storage": "50Gi"}}}}'

  7. Do one of the following:

    • If the storageClass supports online expansion: Wait for the PVC to automatically resize. For more information, see the Kubernetes documentation.

    • Otherwise: Wait for the PVC to have the FileSystemResizePending condition. Delete the MySQL Pod to unmount the PVC and allow it to resize.
      kubectl wait --for=condition=FileSystemResizePending pvc/mysql-data-INSTANCE-NAME-N
      kubectl rollout restart statefulset MYSQL-INSTANCE-NAME
      For example:
      $ kubectl wait --for=condition=FileSystemResizePending pvc/mysql-data-mysql-sample-0
      persistentvolumeclaim/mysql-data-mysql-sample-0 condition met 
      $ kubectl rollout restart statefulset mysql-sample statefulset.apps/mysql-sample restarted
  8. After the StatefulSet controller has automatically re-created the MySQL Pod, and the MySQL Pod has successfully restarted, verify that the storage has been resized.

    kubectl exec INSTANCE-NAME-N -c mysql -- df -h /var/lib/mysql
    

    Where:

    • INSTANCE-NAME is the value that you configured for metadata.name for your MySQL resource.
    • N is the index of the Pod in the MySQL instance.

    For example:

    $ kubectl exec mysql-sample-0 -c mysql -- df -h /var/lib/mysql
    Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
    /dev/sdb        3.0G  346M  2.6G  12% /var/lib/mysql

Expected Downtime When Scaling storageSize

For HA instances, no downtime is expected.

For single-node instances, the expected downtime when expanding storage is as follows:

  • With online expansion: There is no downtime expected in most cases.
  • With offline expansion: There is downtime while the MySQL Pod is re-created and the PVC is being resized.

Scale CPU and Memory Resources

To scale CPU or memory resources, update the MySQL configuration spec.resources field to change the CPU or memory requirements for the mysql or sidecar containers.

You can use one of these methods to update the configuration:

  • Patch the existing API object in place by running:

    kubectl patch mysql INSTANCE-NAME --type merge -p \
    '{"spec": {"resources": {"mysql": MYSQL-RESOURCES, " mysqlSidecar": SIDECAR-RESOURCES}}}'
    

    Where:

    • INSTANCE-NAME is the value that you configured for metadata.name for your MySQL resource.
    • MYSQL-RESOURCES is a collection of cpu and memory limits and requests for the mysql container.
    • SIDECAR-RESOURCES is a collection of cpu and memory limits and requests for the mysql-sidecar container.

    For example:

    $ kubectl patch mysql mysql-sample --type merge -p '{"spec": {"resources": {"mysql": {"requests": {"cpu": "500m"}}, "mysqlSidecar": {"limits": {"memory": "64Mi"}}}}}'
    

  • If you manage MySQL resources with a set of configuration files in source control, you can also change the fields in the file and apply the changes.

    For example:

    $ kubectl apply -f mysql.yaml

For more information on managing CPU and Memory resources, see the Kubernetes documentation.

Expected Downtime When Scaling CPU and Memory Resources

For HA instances, no downtime is expected.

For single-node instances, the expected downtime when changing resource reservations is as follows:

  • Brief downtime while Kubernetes re-creates the MySQL Pods.
  • Risk of longer downtime if the new requested values exceed the available capacity of the Kubernetes cluster.

Change Other Configurations

Changing storageClassName or imagePullSecret does not have any effect on a running MySQL instance. If a MySQL instance is not running due to errors in these fields, you can change them. The changes are propagated into the StatefulSet to correct the error.

To change storageClassName or imagePullSecret, update the MySQL configuration by one of the methods below:

  • Patch the existing API object in place:

    kubectl patch mysql INSTANCE-NAME -p '{"spec": {"PROPERTY": "VALUE"}}'
    

    Where:

    • INSTANCE-NAME is the value that you configured for metadata.name for your MySQL resource.
    • PROPERTY is the property name.
    • VALUE is the new property value.

    For example:

    $ kubectl patch mysql mysql-sample -p '{"spec": {"imagePullSecret": "new-secret-name"}}'

  • If you manage MySQL resources with a set of configuration files in source control, you can change the fields in the file and apply the changes.

    For example:

    $ kubectl apply -f mysql.yaml

For information about the properties, see Property Reference for the MySQL Resource.