GCP Reference Architecture

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This topic describes two reference architectures for Ops Manager and any runtime products, including VMware Tanzu Application Service for VMs (TAS for VMs) and Tanzu Kubernetes Grid Integrated Edition (TKGI), on Google Cloud Platform (GCP): on a shared virtual private cloud (VPC) and on a single-project VPC. This topic also outlines multiple networking variants for VPC deployment. The architectures are validated for production-grade Ops Manager deployments using multiple availability zones (AZs).

For general requirements for running Ops Manager and specific requirements for running Ops Manager on GCP, see Ops Manager on GCP Requirements

Ops Manager Reference Architectures

An Ops Manager reference architecture describes a proven approach for deploying Ops Manager on a specific IaaS, such as GCP.

An Ops Manager reference architecture must meet these requirements:

  • Be secure
  • Be publicly accessible
  • Include common Ops Manager-managed services such as VMware Tanzu SQL, VMware Tanzu RabbitMQ, and Spring Cloud Services for VMware Tanzu
  • Be able to host at least 100 app instances

VMware provides reference architectures to help you determine the best configuration for your Ops Manager deployment.

Shared vs Single-Project VPCs

A shared VPC installation is harder to configure than an Ops Manager deployment on a single-project VPC, because the required account privileges and resource allocations are more granular and complex. But the shared VPC architecture allows network assets to be centrally located, which simplifies auditing and security. VMware recommends the shared VPC model for:

  • Deployments with deep auditing and security requirements
  • When networks hosting the foundation need to connect back to an internal network through a VPN or interconnect

A single-project VPC lets the platform architect give Ops Manager full access to the VPC and its resources, which makes configuration easier. VMware recommends single-project VPC architecture for:

  • Standalone deployments that do not connect to an internal network
  • Test and experimental deployments, and for projects which do not belong to an organization

Shared VPC GCP Reference Architecture

The diagram below illustrates a reference architecture for a deployment of Ops Manager on a shared VPC on GCP. This architecture requires an organization on the VPC that contains a host project and a service project.

For more information about shared VPCs on GCP, see Shared VPC Overview in the Google Cloud documentation.

For more information about how this architecture divides resources between projects, see Host and Service Architecture.

Gcp overview shared vpc

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NAT Network Topology

To expose a minimal number of public IP addresses, set up your NAT as shown in the diagram below:

Gcp nat flow

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Cloud Interconnect

To speed communication between data centers, use Google Cloud Interconnect, as shown in the diagram below:

Gcp cloud interconnect

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Host and Service Architecture

GCP allocates resources using a hierarchy that centers around projects. To create a VPC, architects define a host project that allocates network resources for the VPC, such as address space and firewall rules. Then they can define one or more service projects to run within the VPC, which share the network resources allocated by the host project and include their own non-network resources, such as VMs and storage buckets.

To install Ops Manager, VMware Tanzu Application Service for VMs (TAS for VMs), and services in a shared VPC on GCP, you create a host project for the VPC and a service project dedicated to running Ops Manager, TAS for VMs, and services.

Host Project Resources

The host project centrally manages these shared VPC network resources:

  • Infra subnet (Ops Manager VM and BOSH Director)
  • TAS for VMs subnet
  • Services subnet
  • Isolation segments
  • Firewall rules
  • NAT instances and gateway
  • VPN or Google Cloud Interconnect
  • Routes, such as egress Internet through NAT or egress on-premises through a VPN

Service Project Resources

The service project manages these resources:

  • Google Cloud Compute instances (VMs)

    • BOSH Director
    • Ops Manager VM
    • VMs deployed by BOSH, such as runtime and service components
  • Google Cloud Storage buckets for blobstore

    • BOSH Director
    • Resources
    • Buildpacks
    • Droplets
    • Packages
  • Service account and a service account key for TAS for VMs to access the storage buckets

  • A service account for Ops Manager

  • Load balancers

  • Google Cloud SQL instances, if using external databases

Single-Project VPC Base GCP Reference Architecture

The diagram below illustrates a reference architecture for a deployment of Ops Manager on a single-project VPC on GCP.

Gcp overview single vpc

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Base Reference Architecture Components

The table below lists the components that are part of a reference architecture deployment with three AZs.

Component Reference Architecture Notes
Domains and DNS Domain zones and routes in use by the reference architecture include: domains for *.apps and *.system (required), a route for Ops Manager (required), a route for Doppler (required), a route for Loggregator (required), a route for SSH access to app containers (optional), and a route for TCP routing to apps (optional). Reference architecture uses GCP Cloud DNS as the DNS provider.
Ops Manager VM Deployed on the infrastructure subnet and accessible by fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) or through an optional jumpbox.
BOSH Director Deployed on the infrastructure subnet.
Gorouters Accessed through the HTTP and TCP WebSockets load balancers. Deployed on the TAS for VMs subnet, one job per AZ.
Diego Brains Required. However, the SSH container access functionality is optional and enabled through the SSH Proxy load balancer. Deployed on the TAS for VMs subnet, one job per AZ.
TCP routers Optional feature for TCP routing. Deployed on the TAS for VMs subnet, one job per AZ.
Database Reference architecture uses GCP Cloud SQL rather than internal databases. Configure your database with a strong password and limit access only to components that require database access.
Blob Storage and Buckets For buildpacks, droplets, packages, and resources. Reference architecture uses Google Cloud Storage rather than internal file storage.
Services Deployed on the managed services subnet. Each service is deployed to each AZ.

Alternative GCP Network Layouts

This section describes the possible network layouts for TAS for VMs deployments as covered by the reference architecture of Ops Manager on GCP.

At a high level, there are currently two possible ways of granting public Internet access to TAS for VMs as described by the reference architecture:

However, if you require NAT, see NAT-Based Solution.

NAT-Based Solution

The diagram below illustrates the case where you want to expose only a minimal number of public IP addresses.

Gcp net topology base

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Public IP Addresses Solution

If you prefer not to use a NAT solution, you can configure TAS for VMs on GCP to assign public IP addresses for all components. This type of deployment may be more performant since most of the network traffic between TAS for VMs components are routed through the front end load balancer and the Gorouter.

Network Objects

The table below lists the network objects expected for each type of reference architecture deployment with three AZs (assumes you are using NAT).

Network Object Notes Minimum Number: NAT-Based Minimum Number: Public IP Addresses
External IPs For a NAT solution, use global IP address for apps and system access, and Ops Manager or an optional jumpbox. 2 30+
NAT One NAT per AZ. 3 0
Network One per deployment. GCP Network objects allow multiple subnets with multiple CIDRs, so a typical deployment likely only ever requires one GCP Network object. 1 1
Subnets Separate subnets for infrastructure (Ops Manager VM, BOSH Director, jumpbox), TAS for VMs, and services. Using separate subnets allows you to configure different firewall rules due to your needs. 3 3
Routes Routes are typically created by GCP dynamically when subnets are created, but you may need to create additional routes to force outbound communication to dedicated SNAT nodes. These objects are required to deploy TAS for VMs without public IP addresses. 3+ 3
Firewall Rules GCP firewall rules are bound to a Network object and can be created to use IP ranges, subnets, or instance tags to match for source and destination fields in a rule. The preferred method used in the reference architecture deployment is instance tags. 6+ 6+
Load balancers Used to handle requests to Gorouters and infrastructure components. GCP uses two or more load balancers. The HTTP load balancer and TCP WebSockets load balancer are both required. The TCP router load balancer used for TCP routing and the SSH load balancer that allows SSH access to Diego apps are both optional. The HTTP load balancer provides SSL termination. 2+ 2+
Jumpbox Optional. Provides a way of accessing different network components. For example, you can configure it with your own permissions and then set it up to access to VMware Tanzu Network to download tiles. Using a jumpbox is particularly useful in IaaSes where Ops Manager does not have a public IP address. In these cases, you can SSH into the Ops Manager VM or any other component through the jumpbox. (1) (1)

Network Communication in GCP Deployments

These sections provide more background on the reasons behind certain network configuration decisions, specifically for the Gorouter.

Load Balancer to Gorouter Communications and TLS Termination

In a TAS for VMs on GCP deployment, the Gorouter receives two types of traffic:

  • Unencrypted HTTP traffic on port 80 that is decrypted by the HTTP(S) load balancer.

  • Encrypted secure web socket traffic on port 443 that is passed through the TCP WebSockets load balancer.

TLS is terminated for HTTPS on the HTTP load balancer and is terminated for WebSockets (WSS) traffic on the Gorouter.

TAS for VMs deployments on GCP use two load balancers to handle Gorouter traffic because HTTP load balancers currently do not support WebSockets.

ICMP

GCP routers do not respond to ICMP. VMware recommends disabling ICMP checks in your BOSH Director network configuration. For more information, see Step 5: Create Networks Page in Configuring BOSH Director on GCP Manually.